AFC = Asian Financial Crisis, ASEAN = Association of Southeast Asian Nations, COVID-19 = coronavirus disease, GFC = global financial crisis, PRC = People's Republic of China, SARS = Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, US = United States.
Asia and the Pacific includes Australia, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Advanced Asia includes Australia and Japan. ASEAN+3 includes Hong Kong, China; Japan; the PRC; the Republic of Korea; and Southeast Asia. ASEAN and Southeast Asia include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Developing Asia includes East Asia excluding Japan, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. East Asia includes Hong Kong, China; Japan; the PRC; the Republic of Korea; and Taipei,China. South Asia includes India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
Sources: ADB. Asia Regional Integration Center; and methodology by Mercado and Park (2014).