AEIR 2019/2020

Asian Economic Integration Report 2019/2020

Demographic Change, Productivity, and the Role of Technology

The Asian Economic Integration Report is an annual review of economic cooperation and integration that covers the 49 members of ADB in Asia and the Pacific. It documents progress made in trade and global value chains, cross-border investment, financial integration, the movement of people, and subregional cooperation. The theme chapter of this year’s report explores the potential of technology to boost productivity in aging economies. It also discusses how innovations can help turn demographic challenges into opportunities.

  • Older workers in Asia are now healthier with an average healthy life span (expectancy) of 63.8 years in 2017, from 57.2 years in 1990.



  • Older workers in Asia are now more educated. The average years of schooling of 55 to 64-year olds rose from 4.6 years during in 1990 to 7.8 years in 2015.



  • Asia remained top contributor to global trade as its regional value chains deepened.



  • Asia continues to be an attractive FDI destination as well as a formidable source of global FDI.



  • Portfolio debt investment grew moderately, and portfolio equity investment contracted, but banking activities hit a record high.



  • Remittance inflows into Asia reached $302 billion in 2018, accounting for 44% of global remittance inflows.



Contents:

Cover and Highlights

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Trade and Global Value Chains

  • Recent Trends in Asia’s Trade
  • Asia’s Intraregional Trade
  • Progress of Global and Regional Value Chains
  • Trade Conflict and Its Potential Impact
  • Updates on Regional Trade Policy
  • The Role of FTAs in Making Trade Work for All
  • ANNEX 1a: Impact of Technology on GVC Exports
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Cross-Border Investment

  • Trends and Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment in Asia
  • Outward Foreign Direct Investment
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Financial Integration

  • Asia’s Cross-Border Financial Assets and Liabilities
  • Outward Portfolio Investment
  • Inward Portfolio Investment
  • Subregional Portfolio Investment
  • Bank Holdings
  • Analysis Using Price Indicators
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Movement of People

  • Remittances
  • International Tourism and the Movement of Visitors
  • International Tourism Receipts
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Subregional Cooperation Initiatives

  • Central and West Asia: Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program
  • Southeast Asia: Greater Mekong Subregion Program
  • East Asia: Support for RCI Initiatives under CAREC and GMS Subregional Programs and Knowledge-Sharing Activities
  • South Asia: South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation
  • The Pacific: Partnering with the Private Sector to Expand Energy Access
  • The Asia-Pacific Regional Cooperation and Integration Index
  • Role of Economic Integration in Growth and Development
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Theme Chapter: "Demographic Change, Productivity, and the Role of Technology"

  • Introduction
  • Population Aging in Asia
  • Workforce Aging, Productivity, and the Role of Technology
  • Technology Options for Graying Asia
  • Assessing the Technology Needs of Countries Based on Age-Education Profiles
  • Turning the Demographic Headwind to a Tailwind-Policy Considerations
  • Background Papers
  • ANNEX 6a: Demographical Change, Technological Advance, and Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis
  • ANNEX 6b: Data and Methodology Used in Country Case Studies
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Statistical Appendix

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Infographics:

Food Security in Asia and the Pacific, COVID-19 Pandemic, and the Role of Policy
21
Sep
2020

Food Security in Asia and the Pacific, COVID-19 Pandemic, and the Role of Policy

As the COVID-19 pandemic increases food security risks in Asia and the Pacific, this challenge also calls for a bolder role for policy and regional cooperation, as featured in ADB Briefs No. 139.

Patterns of Asia's Intraregional Investment in 2018
25
Jun
2020

Patterns of Asia's Intraregional Investment in 2018

In 2018, amid Asian equity markets’ subdued performance, moderating global growth, and global trade tensions, Asia’s intraregional portfolio debt investment grew moderately, while intraregional portfolio equity investment and cross-border bank claims both contracted.

Greenfield FDI and Mergers and Acquisitions
5
May
2020

Greenfield FDI and Mergers and Acquisitions

The year 2018 saw a sharp increase in greenfield FDI and M&As in Asia, after declining in 2017.

Foreign Direct Investment from Asia and the Pacific
29
Apr
2020

Foreign Direct Investment from Asia and the Pacific

Almost half of global outward FDI in 2018 came from Asia and the Pacific.

Foreign Direct Investment to Asia and the Pacific
23
Apr
2020

Foreign Direct Investment to Asia and the Pacific

Asia and the Pacific remains an attractive destination of global FDI, as foreign investment to the region grew 6.3% in 2018.