AEIR 2019/2020

Asian Economic Integration Report 2019/2020

Demographic Change, Productivity, and the Role of Technology

The Asian Economic Integration Report is an annual review of economic cooperation and integration that covers the 49 members of ADB in Asia and the Pacific. It documents progress made in trade and global value chains, cross-border investment, financial integration, the movement of people, and subregional cooperation. The theme chapter of this year’s report explores the potential of technology to boost productivity in aging economies. It also discusses how innovations can help turn demographic challenges into opportunities.

  • Older workers in Asia are now healthier with an average healthy life span (expectancy) of 63.8 years in 2017, from 57.2 years in 1990.

  • Older workers in Asia are now more educated. The average years of schooling of 55 to 64-year olds rose from 4.6 years during in 1990 to 7.8 years in 2015.

  • Asia remained top contributor to global trade as its regional value chains deepened.

  • Asia continues to be an attractive FDI destination as well as a formidable source of global FDI.

  • Portfolio debt investment grew moderately, and portfolio equity investment contracted, but banking activities hit a record high.

  • Remittance inflows into Asia reached $302 billion in 2018, accounting for 44% of global remittance inflows.


Cover and Highlights

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Trade and Global Value Chains

  • Recent Trends in Asia’s Trade
  • Asia’s Intraregional Trade
  • Progress of Global and Regional Value Chains
  • Trade Conflict and Its Potential Impact
  • Updates on Regional Trade Policy
  • The Role of FTAs in Making Trade Work for All
  • ANNEX 1a: Impact of Technology on GVC Exports
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Cross-Border Investment

  • Trends and Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment in Asia
  • Outward Foreign Direct Investment
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Financial Integration

  • Asia’s Cross-Border Financial Assets and Liabilities
  • Outward Portfolio Investment
  • Inward Portfolio Investment
  • Subregional Portfolio Investment
  • Bank Holdings
  • Analysis Using Price Indicators
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Movement of People

  • Remittances
  • International Tourism and the Movement of Visitors
  • International Tourism Receipts
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Subregional Cooperation Initiatives

  • Central and West Asia: Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program
  • Southeast Asia: Greater Mekong Subregion Program
  • East Asia: Support for RCI Initiatives under CAREC and GMS Subregional Programs and Knowledge-Sharing Activities
  • South Asia: South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation
  • The Pacific: Partnering with the Private Sector to Expand Energy Access
  • The Asia-Pacific Regional Cooperation and Integration Index
  • Role of Economic Integration in Growth and Development
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Theme Chapter: "Demographic Change, Productivity, and the Role of Technology"

  • Introduction
  • Population Aging in Asia
  • Workforce Aging, Productivity, and the Role of Technology
  • Technology Options for Graying Asia
  • Assessing the Technology Needs of Countries Based on Age-Education Profiles
  • Turning the Demographic Headwind to a Tailwind-Policy Considerations
  • Background Papers
  • ANNEX 6a: Demographical Change, Technological Advance, and Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis
  • ANNEX 6b: Data and Methodology Used in Country Case Studies
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Statistical Appendix

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Asia’s intraregional trade stays strong amid global uncertainties

Asia’s intraregional trade stays strong amid global uncertainties

Asia’s trade growth was sustained in 2018 despite external risks thanks to its robust intraregional trade. Deepening of regional value chains and the drive for free trade agreements continue to strengthen trade within the region.

Tourism in Asia and the Pacific continue to scale greater heights

Tourism in Asia and the Pacific continue to scale greater heights

International tourism in Asia continue to grow, driven by stronger pull in visitor arrivals (407.6 million) and higher tourism receipts ($368 billion) across the region.

Financial Integration: Asian Bond and Equity Markets

Financial Integration: Asian Bond and Equity Markets

Asia's financial linkages with the rest of the world remain strong. Domestic policies outside Asia are tied to Asia's financial markets.

Financial Integration: Asian Banks

Financial Integration: Asian Banks

Amidst the increasing trend in Asia's intraregional bank integration, Japan has been the largest foreign lender since mid-2015.

Trend in Cross-border Financial Assets and Liabilities

Trend in Cross-border Financial Assets and Liabilities

The growth in Asia’s cross-border assets and liabilities was driven by a surge in equity investment, boosted by global liquidity, favorable economic conditions, and investors’ appetite for positive equity returns.